Bay of Bengal Literacy Guidebook

Bay of Bengal Literacy GuidebookBay of Bengal Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts

Version: January 2019

‘Bay of Bengal Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts’ intends to present the very first instructions to build local frameworks for Ocean Literacy in the littoral countries of Bay of Bengal; Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. This document can be used as a practical resource to create contents on Bay of Bengal literacy by educators, communicators, and journalists throughout formal and informal learning environments including schools, colleges, madrasahs, libraries, museums, aquariums, parks, community-based media, performing arts, and other knowledge and information centers.



Development of Bay of Bengal Literacy Guidebook

Based on Essential Principles and Fundamental Concept of Ocean Literacy developed by Ocean Literacy Network in the United States, and following the Great Lakes Literacy framework as a model, a group of scientists, experts, communicators, and educators in Bangladesh worked to prepare this first version of Bay of Bengal Literacy. The development was initiated under a project run by Voices for Interactive Choice and Empowerment (VOICE) with support from Internews’ Earth Journalism Network’s Bay of Bengal Organizational Grant (the grant is funded by the Climate Justice Resilience Fund). During that project from July 2018 to February 2019, Md Kutub Uddin and SM Rezaul Karim led the efforts as the Facilitator and Research Associate respectively.


  • Md Kutub Uddin, VOICE
  • SM Rezaul Karim, VOICE
  • Nazia Naoreen Mumu, Bay of Bengal Stewardship
  • Dr. Kazi Ahsan Habib, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University
  • Mahatub Khan Badhon, University of Dhaka
  • Enamul Mazid Khan Siddique, Bay of Bengal Stewardship
  • Sheikh Rokon, Riverine People
  • Fahmida Khalique Nitu, National University


The guidebook was greatly benefitted from the following works;

Ocean Literacy Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts (Ocean Literacy Network, 2013) • Great Lakes Literacy (Ohio Sea Grant, 2013) • The UNEP Large Marine Ecosystems Report: A Perspective on Changing Conditions in LMEs of the World’s Regional Seas (United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, 2008) • Talwani, M., Desa, M. A., Ismaiel, M., & Krishna, K. S. The Tectonic origin of the Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 121, 4836–4851 (2016) • Varkey, M. J., Murthy, V. N., & Suryanarayana, A. Physical Oceanography of the Bay of Bengal. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 34, 1–70, (1996) • Kay, S., Caesar, J., & Janes, T. Marine Dynamics and Productivity in the Bay of Bengal. In R. J. Nicholls, C. W. Hutton, S. E. Hanson, W. Neil Adger, M. M. Rahman, & M. Salehin (Eds.), Ecosystem Services for Well-Being in Deltas: Integrated Assessment for Policy Analysis, 263–275 (2018) • Milliman, J. D., & Meade, R. H. World-Wide Delivery of River Sediment to the Oceans. The Journal of Geology, 91(1), 1–21 (1983) • Bay of Bengal (Sea Around Us, 2007) • Antony, C., Unnikrishnan, A. S., & Woodworth, P. L. Evolution of extreme high waters along the east coast of India and at the head of the Bay of Bengal. Global and Planetary Change, 140, 59–67 (2016) • Balakrishna, S., Morgan, J. R., & Verlaan, P. A. Bay of Bengal. Encyclopædia Britannica (2009, Encyclopædia Britannica, • Curray, J. R., Emmel, F. J., & Moore, D. G. The Bengal Fan: morphology, geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19(10), 1191-1223 (2002) • Chaturvedi, S., & Sakhuja, V. Climate Change and the Bay of Bengal: Evolving Geographies of Fear and Hope (ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute, Singapore City, 2015) • Unnikrishnan, A. S., & Shankar, D. Are sea-level-rise trends along the coasts of the north Indian Ocean consistent with global estimates? Global and Planetary Change, 57 (3–4), 301–307 (2007) • Brammer, H. Bangladesh’s dynamic coastal regions and sea-level rise. Climate Risk Management, 1, 51-62 (2014) • Townsley, P. Review of Coastal and Marine Livelihoods and Food Security in the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Region (Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem Program, Phuket, 2004)

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