Essential Principle 3

The Bay of Bengal influences local and regional weather and climate



A. The Bay of Bengal affects both weather and climate of this region by impacting the energy and water cycles. Differences in the circulation and temperatures of waters in the bay can produce changes in weather patterns.

B. Absorption of solar radiation influences the temperature of the bay. Inflowing river waters also affect the temperature. The bay loses heat by evaporation and warming the overlying air when the atmosphere is cool. After water vapor is released into the atmosphere, it condenses and forms precipitation, some of which falls within the Bay of Bengal region.

C. The Bay of Bengal modifies the local weather and climate. Because water temperatures change more slowly than land temperatures, sea waters gain heat in summer and release heat during cooler months. This asymmetric heating between the bay and the regional landmasses lead to wind pattern associated with precipitation— that is the monsoon.

D. The Bay of Bengal has a significant influence on the regional climate by absorbing, storing, and moving heat and water. During the summers, the southwesterly winds pick moisture from the bay and make rainfall in basin areas. The winter winds blow from the northeast regions of the Asian continent and subsequently travel towards the bay and extend to the greater Indian Ocean.

E. The Bay of Bengal is influenced by larger climate change patterns affecting the region and the world. Climate patterns in the Bay of Bengal’s Large Marine Ecosystem are changing with rising sea level, along with irregular monsoon, more intense and frequent storms; and warmer and drier conditions are predicted.


Version: August 2019

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